21.09

How to Make the Most of Your Farm Effluents

Improving how you manage your livestock effluents is a big economic and environmental challenge. Each step of the process needs to be considered, from the animal feed to spreading manure. ​ ​ ​ Manure is a mixture of animal dung mixed with litter components (straw, wood shaving…) stored on a platform or in... View Article

Improving how you manage your livestock effluents is a big economic and environmental challenge. Each step of the process needs to be consideredfrom the animal feed to spreading manure



Manure is a mixture of animal dung mixed with litter components (strawwood shaving…) stored on a platform or in the building. 

Slurry is composed of effluents with a very low quantity of dry matter and is stored in a pit. 

Both types of effluents can be produced by bovins, ovins, swine, and poultry, and each has different fertilizing capabilities.

The storage and management of effluents is not simple. Here are some frequently encountered difficulties :

     The stored manure is a heavy producttakes up spaceproduces strong odors and smells of ammonia. (NH3). Badly managed manure can : 

  • Be complicated to decompose
  • Be asphyxiating for the soil

    The slurry stock in a pit takes up a lot of space, and needs to be managed correctly because

  • It releases odors of ammonia and sulfur.
  • Creates a crust at the surface and which makes it complicated to handle and remove later on. 
    For both effluents, poor management creates poor compost. These effluents should be managed correctlybecause maximizing their fertility potential is essential for crops and pastures
08.09

How to Improve Soil Fertility

  A deeper understanding of soil composition is essential in order to create optimized fertility... View Article

 

A deeper understanding of soil composition is essential in order to create optimized fertility programs. Among other factors observed through soil analysis, organic matter is a reliable indicator of soil fertility, as it affects physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil

Organic Matter is essential for attaining healthy soil fertility.

 

 

Biological activity: most of the micro-organisms living in the soil need energy from the organic matter to be efficient and optimize their biological activity.

 

Nutrient availability: thanks to the micro-organisms, the fresh organic matter is either mineralized (1) into nutrients, directly available for plants (2) or transformed into humus (3), the most stable part of organic matter that plays an essential role on the soil structure and nutrient availability through time.

This humus is in turn mineralised in order to provide nutrients for the plants, we call it the second mineralization (4) and this process is much longer than the first mineralization mentioned above. At the same time, this humus binds to clay in order to form the well-known clay-humus complex (5). This complex catches nutrients (6) and prevents them from leaching and being blocked by other molecules, until it releases (6) them into the soil solution where plants can access nutrients.

 

pH regulation (7): The clay-humus complex also has a high-buffering capacity, trapping H+ cations that are responsible for acidifying the soil. Be careful: the cation exchange capacity of the complex is not unlimited and when more H+ cations become trapped, fewer essential nutrients for plants will be stored.

 

 Soil structure (8): the clay-humus complex also plays a major role on the soil structure as it

• allows the aggregation of soil particles in order to get a better porosity,

• limits the number of free particles (and so, limits the risk of beating),

• reinforces the soil resistance to compaction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TIMAC AGRO Technologies optimize micro-organisms activity, enhance organic matter mineralization, and improve nutrient availability. Contact your local TIMAC AGRO Expert to find out which technology is right for you!

 

 

04.08

How do certain fertilizers impact soil pH?

Low calcium levels can lower pH. Calcium is a secondary element that is required in... View Article

Low calcium levels can lower pH. Calcium is a secondary element that is required in high quantities. It also plays a role in increasing or maintaining a soil’s pH levels, and its losses must be regularly compensated.

On average, a field loses 400kg to 700kg of calcium per ha per year. Calcium loss is the first step towards unbalanced pH levels. Calcium levels drop when crops use up the nutrient, through leaching, or from the use of fertilizers. Fertilizers have a decalcifying effect in three ways:
• They increase yield and the nutrient is taken up by the plants;
• NH4+ and K+ ions create a movement of the ions Ca2+ from the humic-clay complex towards the soil solution ;
• Nitrification is an acidifying reaction : The use of fertilizers containing Ca reduces the acidifying and decalcifying effects of ammonium-based fertilizers. Even if the total quantity of Ca supplied per ha is low, the effect of Calcium-rich fertilizers has proved to be very efficient on micro pH (found in the rhizosphere), which is extremely important for crops.

In the end, this association of Ca and N fertilizers can maintain soil pH, boost nitrifying bacteria and increase NUE. Source: Soltner, 2014

Contact your TIMAC AGRO Expert to know which technology can replenish the calcium in your soils and protect your pH!

19.07

How to Increase the Yield and Quality of Processed Tomatoes?

Tomatoes are consumed all around the world for their nutritional and organoleptic qualities. 25% of the world production is for the processed market  (2002). According to the requirements... View Article

Tomatoes are consumed all around the world for their nutritional and organoleptic qualities. 25% of the world production is for the processed market  (2002). According to the requirements of the processed tomato market, growers need to focus on yield and physical quality.

Fruit development is an important concern regarding yield and fruit quality in processed tomatoes.

The first two weeks after fruit set is the phase of cell division with slow growth, then cell expansion with rapid fruit growth.

Cell division and expansion happens in the plant cell wall composed of many elements, in particular hemicellulose xyloglucane and pectin. Both allow the reshaping of the cell  wall and therefore fruit development :

  • Hemicellulose interacts with cellulose microfibrils  and enables the cell to change its shape during growth and development (Hayashi and Kaida 2011)
  • Pectin controls the permeability of cell walls and is involved in regulation of ion transportation (Voragenet al 2009) which will determine important parameters such as texture and firmness (Brummell 2006; Jarvis et al 2003).

With the application of our technologies, we saw a 20% increase in yield and fruit size. This coincided with a higher density of pectins and xyloglucans in the cell walls.

References:

Voragen, A. G., Coenen, G. J., Verhoef, R. P., & Schols, H. A. (2009). Pectin, a versatile polysaccharide present in plant cell walls. Structural Chemistry, 20(2), 263-275.

BRUMMELL, D. S. Primary cell wall metabolism during fruit ripening. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 2006, vol. 36, no 1, p. 99.

Jarvis, M. C., Briggs, S. P. H., & Knox, J. P. (2003). Intercellular adhesion and cell separation in plants. Plant, Cell & Environment, 26(7), 977-989.

 

 

06.07

The Impact of Heat Stress on Ruminants

Ruminants can be easily impacted by heat stress. It does not take extremely high temperatures for your... View Article

Ruminants can be easily impacted by heat stress. It does not take extremely high temperatures for your animals to experience stresses that can have severe health consequences. In addition to heat, it is also highly important to consider humidity when determining the level of stress your animals might experience.

Summer is here, here’s a table to help you determine your cattle’s level of stress.

Source: Habeeb, Alsaied & Gad, Ahmed & Atta, Mostafa. (2018). Temperature-Humidity Indices as Indicators to Heat Stress of Climatic Conditions with Relation to Production and Reproduction of Farm Animals. International Journal of Biotechnology and Recent Advances. 1. 35-50. 10.18689/ijbr-1000107. 

Most of the time, heat stress occurs during summer, that is why it is a crucial period for farmers to implement strategies to mitigate the negative effects of these warmer months. 

  • Decrease in dairy production

Milk production often decreases during summer due to the high temperatures. This reduction in milk production can reach 1 to 4 kg of milk per cow (0.28 kg/h of loss during light heat stress and 0.303 kg/h of loss for moderate heat stress). The decrease of milk production can also be the result of mastitis, which occurs when white blood cells are released into the mammary gland. 

  • Decrease of reproduction

Heat stress can cause hormonal disruptions, energy deficits and oxidative stresses. Oxidative stress  can result in non-fertilizing insemination and embryonic mortality.

  • Risk of acidosis

From 25°C the biological systems of cattle make an effort to avoid increasing their internal temperature; by decreasing rumination and decreasing ingestion. As cows ruminate and swallow less, a decrease of saliva occurs which cause an overproduction of acids leading to acidosis.

  • Risk of  lameness

Risk of laminitis and lameness increase with heat stress. Cows are in tougher environmental conditions and are more prone to developing physiological disorders.

That being said,  there are several strategies farmers can implement through proper nutrition and feed supplements that help reduce the negative effects of heat stress.

Contact a TIMAC AGRO Expert to learn how you can help your herd beat the heat!

10.06

TIMAC AGRO España and TIMAC AGRO France Work Towards Even Cleaner Factories

50% REDUCTION OF DUST EMISSIONS AT THE LODOSA FACTORY IN SPAIN At the Lodosa site... View Article

50% REDUCTION OF DUST EMISSIONS AT THE LODOSA FACTORY IN SPAIN

At the Lodosa site in Spain, new facilities have been brought into operation in the granulation workshop. This new equipment ensures the complete sealing of several belt conveyors and their associated dust removal systems.

They add to a first investment phase involving the installation of a baghouse filter with a capacity of 95,000 m3/H to clean the cooling fluidised bed. This enables the site to continue to reduce dust emissions drastically.

At the industrial estate site in Saint-Malo, France, a new baghouse filter has also just been installed to process the air released from the drying operation using 600 bag filters. This dust-filtered air is then directed to a spray tower inaugurated in September 2020.

Not only does this equipment contribute to a significant reduction in material loss, but it also ensures energy optimisation. Besides, it is of great interest in the recycling of our process water. All of our sites are continually seeking to make our workshops even cleaner and to improve their operations.

03.06

How to Improve Apple Conservation by Reducing Bitter Pit

Bitter Pit is a physiologocal disorder, linked to a calcium deficiency in apples. Symptoms: dark brown or black lesions, results of the breakdown of the cells under the skin, appear on the skin... View Article

Bitter Pit is a physiologocal disorderlinked to a calcium deficiency in apples.

Symptomsdark brown or black lesionsresults of the breakdown of the cells under the skin, appear on the skin of the fruit only after harvest.

Calcium is not very mobile within the trees. Even though soil and leaves are correctly fed with this element, a deficiency can appear on fruits. This is especially true when the number of fruits is high and fruits are large, as calcium is diluted through the total amount of biomass. 

Application of calcium on fruits during fruit growth can help reduce Bitter Pit. But, as the disorder is caused by calcium immobility in the tree, it is very important to stimulate the plant in its physiological activity to reduce Bitter Pit. Furthermore, when soil has sufficient calcium content, stimulating physiological activity helps maximize the transfer of calcium to the plant.

Varieties do not have the same sensitivity to this disease but an orchard’s management and fertility program have a huge impact on the development of the disease.

To learn how to improve calcium availability to apples, contact your local TIMAC AGRO representative!

27.05

Wheat: Preparing the Root System for Tillering and Vegetative Growth

The number of tillers is the primary yield component of straw cereals, including wheat, the... View Article

The number of tillers is the primary yield component of straw cereals, including wheat, the world’s most widely grown cereal. The number of tillers is fundamental to crop yield development.

It will compensate for the loss of plants during sowing due to poor planting. It is directly related to the final number of ears. Three leaves constitute a tiller, and this tiller can be transformed into an ear depending on the vegetative growth conditions. Therefore, all the factors favoring optimal tillering must be put in place at the end of winter, when most of the tillering occur. Primarily linked to genetics, the number of tillers depends on the variety sown. However, other factors must be considered:

First of all, the climate. It is necessary to reach a certain temperature for a tiller to appear.
Nutrition: although nitrogen does not help tillering, nitrogen deficiency will strongly limit the number of tillers.
The root system development: there is a linear relationship between the number of secondary roots and the number of tillers

Not only does an optimal development of the root system influence the number of tillers, but it also enables better plant nutrition. It is precisely during this tillering phase (followed by straightening) that the wheat’s secondary roots develop. These secondary roots will later feed the plant: At the level of the first soil horizon, a well-developed root system enables better nitrogen capture. Nitrogen is essential to limit the decrease of tillers during the wheat’s vegetative growth phase. In the second and third soil horizons, the wheat root system, which can reach a depth of up to 160 cm, will mainly collect water. This water stress issue is becoming a recurring issue for wheat, as illustrated by how dry spring seasons have been in recent years.

25.05

Agriculture Week with TIMAC AGRO FRANCE

In 2021, TIMAG AGRO France was an official partner of French Agriculture Week, a nationwide... View Article

In 2021, TIMAG AGRO France was an official partner of French Agriculture Week, a nationwide celebration of this vital industry from May 13-24. In addition to their partnership, TIMAC AGRO FRANCE published a series of educational videos to provide an interesting and dynamic way to share some of TIMAC AGRO’s expertise with other agricultural actors in France.

 

 

Video 1: Do plants already have all the nutrients they need in the soil?

Video 2: Do organic farms need fertilizers?

Video 3: Is any source of calcium beneficial for soils?

Video 4: Do ruminants need assistance to make the most out of their feed?

Video 5: Does France need fertilizer plants?